Abstracts

Dominguez
Shipping, trade and taxation: Lisbon’s tonnage taxation sources and approaches (1769-1833)

Rodrigo da Costa Dominguez (CICS.NOVA, U. Minho) 

 The most recent studies devoted to the practices of the Portuguese tax system and customs between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries favored the analysis of the political-institutional framework, and the observation of commodities’ flows. The ships’ tonnage measurement procedures, their taxation derived from those processes, within the context of an analysis of customs procedures in times of peace and war, is a subject relatively little studied. In this essay we want to present and discuss the assessment and progress of the taxes on the tonnage of ships that docked in Portugal, specifically in Lisbon (known as the Marco dos Navios) within the kingdom’s tax system, since the creation of the Royal Treasury (Erário Régio) in 1761, until its extinction, in 1833.

Tax whose first records date back to the fourteenth century, the Marco was originally a municipal levy charged in Lisbon. It consisted in the payment of one silver mark per 100 tons of weight in each vessel with higher capacity that anchored in Lisbon. The tax collection continued during the Modern period, in a crisis context which worsened at the end of the 1700s and during the first decades of the 1800s, due to the European wars against the Napoleonic regime, the independence of Brazil and the internal Portuguese conflicts resulting from the implementation of liberalism.

From its creation at the end of the 14th century by King John I, through its development and its consolidation as a municipal tax and subsequent incorporation into the set of state’s excises, becoming an integral part of the royal finances, we seek to present and outline the main points of this research essentially from an empirical point of view, i.e. a discussion on the central issues, the analysis of the sources, the methodology and the main features that can be approached from the fiscal and commercial point of view, to engage the economic and maritime history of Portugal.

 

Short-bio: Dr. Rodrigo Dominguez received his B.A. in History from the University Center of Belo Horizonte (UniBH) – Brazil, in 2001. He also got both his M.A. in Medieval and Renaissance Studies (2006), as well as his Ph.D. (2013), from the University of Porto – Portugal. His main areas of study have been: The Economic and Fiscal History of Portugal in the long-run (15th-19thcenturies); Portugal’s trade and shipping in the modern times; the impact of European conflicts, as the Napoleonic Wars on the Portuguese economic diplomacy during the 18thand 19th centuries, as well as the building and consolidation of economic and fiscal institutions in Portugal.

Eloranta
US and European Economic growth in long-run perspective: sources and methodology

Jari Eloranta (U. Helsinki) 

This session will first discuss the recent research traditions in economic and business history, namely the distinction between quantitative and qualitative scholarship. We will also trace the rise of the use of quantitative methods in economic history in the last 50 years. Moreover, we will examine some long-run global growth patterns, and then discuss the US-European comparisons. In particular, we will analyse the dichotomy between smaller/weaker states and larger polities in history.

 

Trends in macroeconomic research and data sources: inequality and government growth

Jari Eloranta (U. Helsinki) 

 This discussion will first focus on some broad interdisciplinary theories concerning economic and global history. Then we will move on to discussion of new quantitative databases and primary source databases. Furthermore, we will focus on sources and debates surrounding inequality in the long run. After that, we will shift our attention to the analysis of government growth in the long run, especially new data and concepts like state capacity and types of states in history.

 

Short-bio: Dr. Jari Eloranta received his MA from the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland, in Finnish and World History in 1995 (and in 1996 in Economic History). Dr. Eloranta earned his Ph.D. in History from the European University Institute, Department of History and Civilization, in Florence, Italy in 2002. His main areas of study are: the history of military spending; the cost and impact of conflicts in history; the history of state formation and welfare states; economic history and development of the Nordic countries; Finnish economic history; business history as a discipline; and small countries in world trade in the 18th, 19th, and 20thcenturies.

Lopes
Portuguese Inquisition finances (17th-18thcenturies): challenges of a research in Institutional Economic History

Bruno Lopes (CIDHEUS, U. Évora; CITCEM, U. Porto)

 The option of doing a Ph.D. in Economic History can be, at first sight, frightening. First of all, training in Social Sciences, particularly in History, lacks the analysis of quantitative variables, as historians tend to privilege the qualitative over the quantitative.

This presentation aims to demonstrate how these fears can be overcome and that numbers can be less daunting than might be thought at the outset. It is possible to find a balance between the qualitative analysis based, for example, on letters, and the quantitative one, based on account books, reports and other related documentation. The combination of different documentary typologies, coupled with the theoretical framework provided by economists and economic historians, shall help to build an analytical matrix that focuses on the historiographical analysis and, therefore, may lay the foundations for a successful Ph.D. in Economic History.

The case study under analysis in this presentation is an ongoing Ph.D. project that aims to study the finances of the Portuguese Inquisition during the 17th and 18th centuries. Through the quantitative and qualitative analysis, its primary goal is to study the financial support of one of the major institutions in the Portuguese Old Regime, responsible for the social and behavioural control.

 

Short-bio: Bruno Lopes is a Ph.D. student (PIUDHist – Inter-University Doctoral Programme in History), working on the financial structure of the Portuguese Inquisition between 1640 and 1773. He holds a scholarship from the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (SFRH/BD/84161/2012). He graduated in History at the University of Évora (2008), where he also obtained his master degree in Historical and Cultural Patrimony Management and Valuation (2012). Since 2009, he has been a member of several research projects.

Marsilio
Numbers matter and matter a lot also in Early Modern History: the case of the international payment system

Claudio Marsilio (GHES/CSG, ISEG-U. Lisboa)

The Genoese fairs inherited the features of a time-honoured institution that developed itself through the subsequent stages of Geneva, Lyon Piacenza and finally Novi. This economic and financial institution reached its zenith between the end of the 16thCentury and the beginning of the 17thcentury; starting from 1580 almost all European International, transactions were settled right in Piacenza exchange fairs every three months. Cashless payment transactions were among the most important means of payment which enabled the Early Modern European economic operators to provide liquidity wherever it was required. As a result, these payments – on the basis of the bill of exchange – contributed to financing the trade within Europe and therefore to the integration of different economic regions.

The “cambi” became the most important International mean of payment and for more than two centuries creditors and debtors met at prearranged towns at set times of the year. The exchange fairs were well-established institutions that rhythmically and cyclically marked the time of the European financial calendar. Piacenza (1580) and later on Novi (1621) became the main operating market where an increasing number of operators coming from all the European trading markets were gathered together and where the volume of transactions multiplied. The exchange fairs of Novi created an efficient financial network under Genoese control and permitted arbitrage among the other northern Italian exchange fairs (Piacenza, Verona, Bolzano) and credit markets.

The goal of my presentation will be to explain how a so distant monetary mechanism can teach us – as historians – how to deal with numbers, quotations, currencies and, above all, documents. Archival documents (commercial letters, books of accounts, price lists, currants) will be shown as examples of useful tools for historical research in Early Modern European history.

 

Short-bio: Graduated in History at the University of Genoa (Italy), and earned a Ph.D. in Economic and Social History at Bocconi University (Milan, Italy). As visiting professor at Pablo de Olavide University (Seville, Spain), he has taught courses in Economic History (2007) and in the following years (2007-2010). Also, he tutored and taught courses in Economic History; History, Institutions and crises of the global financial system and Institutions and Government and Society at Bocconi University. Since October 2017 he has been working at the GHES (ISEG) of the Universidade de Lisboa (Lisbon – Portugal) as a researcher with a project on the International payments system (16th-18th C.) with a special focus on the exchange rates and the bullion market. His research and academic work is based on some specific topics related to economic and financial history. He has published more than thirty articles – the majority in International peer-reviewed journals – and book chapters, and he have conducted lectures and participated in more than thirty congresses in several European countries.

Melo
Crafts regulation in Portugal in late Middle Ages: 14th – 15th centuries

Arnaldo Melo (Lab2PT, U. Minho)

This paper will present the FCT funded research projet Medcraft, Crafts regulation in Portugal in Late Middle Ages: 14thand 15th centuries.

This project intends to study the regulations of crafts activities in late medieval Portugal, 14th and 15th centuries, through the analysis of several Portuguese towns, from different regions, in a comparative perspective between them as well as within the European framework. The project intends to promote an integrated vision of the regulation systems and the social practices, placing them in their social, economic, legal and political contexts, focusing namely on the relations between craftsmen and public authorities. Through the analysis of those regulations, control and its social practices we intend to further understand and characterize the reality of crafts and craftsmen activities in medieval Portugal. The focus on the regulations and control seems to be the better starting point to study crafts realities. Through the study of crafts regulation and control, one can accede to other aspects of the crafts and industrial activities, namely its organization and production structures, and its spatial insertion.

 

Short-bio: Arnaldo Melo holds a Ph.D. in Medieval History from the University of Minho and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (Paris). His main areas of research are: society, economy and power in medieval urban settings; History of construction. Currently, he is Associate Professor at the History Department (ICS), University of Minho, member of the Lab2PT research center (University of Minho), and researcher of LAMOP (Université de Paris 1 – Sorbonne).

Mollan
Argumentation in the perception and interpretation of historical research in management and organization studies: some reservations

Simon Mollan (U. York) 

 This paper will explore the representation of “business history” by Management and Organization studies scholars who are interested in the “historic-turn” in relation to their own field, and how they interact with the field, practice, and community of business history. At the core of this paper is an exploration of why there is a perpetuation of a theoretically and methodologically naive “business history” researcher, who is unreflexive and to a large extent unknowing of their own practices in research. The focus here will be around argumentation; that is, the ways in which arguments and interpretations have been structured and deployed to present the work of business historians in certain ways.

 

Topic selection in Business and Management History: thinking about the “so what?” question

Simon Mollan (U. York) 

This session will discuss some of the ways in which business and management historians problematize and justify their topic selections. The session will examine historiographical, archival, theoretical, socio-political, and institutional determinants of topic selection, problematization, and project justification. It will explore research design in historical research and the question of “making a contribution” that is sometimes considered central to effective historical research. An intention is discuss the everyday practices of historians as it relates to a basic question: how can a topic be selected? What justifies the topic that has been selected? How is the topic important? To which audience is the topic important?  The session will also include a discussion of the different roles that played by a historical researcher – as craftswoman, theoretician, empiricist, storyteller, mythmaker, engineer, and expert.

 

Short-bio: Senior lecture at the University of York. He joined the The York Management School in 2013, having previously held academic posts at York St John University, Durham University, and the University of Liverpool. Since 2013 he has been Head of the International Business, Strategy, and Management Group. He has taught modules in international business and strategic management for both the undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, as well as research methods modules to research postgraduates.

Moreira
Portuguese trade networks with small states (18th-19thcenturies): sources and methods

Maria Cristina Moreira (CICS.NOVA, U. Minho; EEG, U. Minho)

The approach presented to measure the Impact of Revolutionary Napoleonic Wars on the Portuguese Economy focus on the role of the institutions changes, on public finance, trade and GDP of the Portuguese Economy. The sources used in this research allows to enlarge the debate on the thematic.

 

Short-bio: Maria Cristina Moreira is Assistant Professor and member of the Economics Department at Minho University and of the Interdisciplinary Centre of Social Sciences – Pólo UMinho. Member of the board of the Masters in Social Economics (MSE) Former director of MSE and of the Research Unit in European Economy, Industry and International. Vice-president of the General Assembly of APHES. Stakeholder of the project “Economic Outcomes Flowing from the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1793-1815”, having Patrick O´Brien as coordinator, London School of Economics, London. Principal Investigator of projects PTDC/HIS-HIS/118984/2010, POCTI/HAR/59281/2004 e POCTI/HEC/59348/2004. Former president of the Economic and Business Historical Society, USA. Supervisor of three concluded Ph.D. thesis and several Master’s thesis. Acted as jury in Ph.Ds. and Masters. Collaborates as referee in Portugal and abroad.

Pereira
Economic-corporate dynamics of the 20th Portuguese New State: a bottom-up analyses through the internal sources of the primary organisms

Natália Pereira (Lab2PT, U. Minho)

This paper has as its primary objective the analysis of the economic dynamics that preside over the corporate organization established by the Portuguese New State, which created a series of organisms for the control/coordination of economic activity.

The aim is to, from the sources produced by the primary organisms (national trade unions, guilds and houses of the people) of the district of Braga, understand the economic activity carried out by the latter and their involvement in the national economy, through a bottom-up approach. At the same time, the analysis proposed will allow us to gauge the relevance of the sources produced by these organisms (namely, reports, balance sheets and accounts, and ordinary/additional budgets) for the study of the economic history of the New State and 20th century Portugal, whether be it at micro or macro scale.

 

Short-bio: Natália Pereira is a Ph.D. student at Universidade do Minho, with a scholarship from the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia(SFRH/BD/134687/2017), with the project: “A experiência histórica do corporativismo português no norte do País: um estudo de caso a partir da organização das estruturas rurais durante o Estado Novo (1933-1974)”. She graduated in History Teaching (2009) at Universidade do Minho, where she also obtained her master’s degree in History (2013). Since 2015 she’s a member of the International Network for Studies on Corporatism and the Organized Interests (NETCOR) and has been participating and collaborating in research projects on the Portuguese 20th century.

Rodrigues
From private to public borrowing: the Lisbon Misericórdia in the 18th century

Lisbeth Rodrigues (GHES/CSG, ISEG-U. Lisboa)

In this presentation, we seek to expand the relatively narrow focus of most work on the credit activity of the Lisbon Misericórdia, by incorporating the analysis of its participation in the public credit market. Drawing on different archival sources (credit contracts, lawsuits, deliberations of the Misericórdia’s administrative boards and royal decrees), we determine the participation of this brotherhood in the credit market. We compiled a new dataset of credit transaction between 1690 and 1799, and it serves three related aims in this presentation. First, we show the importance of the loans granted by the Misericórdia of Lisbon in the city’s private credit market. Then, we assess the problem of default, revealing its scale, the devices used to execute the contracts and their efficiency. Finally, we explore the contingency between the royal decree of January 31, 1775 – by which the brotherhood was prohibited from lending money at interest to particular individuals – and the Misericórdia’s financial investment options. Data suggest that the Misericórdia expanded its participation in the public credit market due to this charter, particularly between 1782 and 1792, when it bought a significant amount of debt either in the primary (directly to the Exchequer) and the secondary market (to private individuals).

 

Short-bio: Lisbeth Rodrigues holds a Ph.D. in History from the University of Minho (2013). She is currently a postdoctoral research fellow working at The Research Centre of Economic and Social History (GHES/CSG – ISEG, Lisbon University). She was previously involved in different research projects – either as a member and a research assistant – and her research interests center on the credit market and the uses of justice in the early modern period.

Sequeira
Crafts regulation in Portugal in late Middle Ages: 14th – 15th centuries

Joana Sequeira (CITCEM, U. Porto)

This paper will present the FCT funded research projet Medcraft, Crafts regulation in Portugal in Late Middle Ages: 14thand 15th centuries.

This project intends to study the regulations of crafts activities in late medieval Portugal, 14th and 15th centuries, through the analysis of several Portuguese towns, from different regions, in a comparative perspective between them as well as within the European framework. The project intends to promote an integrated vision of the regulation systems and the social practices, placing them in their social, economic, legal and political contexts, focusing namely on the relations between craftsmen and public authorities. Through the analysis of those regulations, control and its social practices we intend to further understand and characterize the reality of crafts and craftsmen activities in medieval Portugal. The focus on the regulations and control seems to be the better starting point to study crafts realities. Through the study of crafts regulation and control, one can accede to other aspects of the crafts and industrial activities, namely its organization and production structures, and its spatial insertion.

 

Short-bio: Joana Sequeira received her Ph.D. in 2012 at the University of Porto and the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales from Paris with a thesis on the Portuguese medieval textile production. Specialized in Medieval Economic History, she has published papers on the textile production, trade and consumption.  She also worked as a post-doctoral researcher on the presence of the Tuscan Company Colle Company in Lisbon in the fifteenth century. She is currently an assistant researcher at the Faculty of Arts from the University of Porto (CITCEM).

Torres
Economic-corporate dynamics of the 20th Portuguese New State: a bottom-up analyses through the internal sources of the primary organisms

Jorge Mano Torres (IHC, NOVA FCSH)

This paper has as its primary objective the analysis of the economic dynamics that preside over the corporate organization established by the Portuguese New State, which created a series of organisms for the control/coordination of economic activity.

The aim is to, from the sources produced by the primary organisms (national trade unions, guilds and houses of the people) of the district of Braga, understand the economic activity carried out by the latter and their involvement in the national economy, through a bottom-up approach. At the same time, the analysis proposed will allow us to gauge the relevance of the sources produced by these organisms (namely, reports, balance sheets and accounts, and ordinary/additional budgets) for the study of the economic history of the New State and 20th century Portugal, whether be it at micro or macro scale.

  

Short-bio: Jorge Mano Torres is a Ph.D. student (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas,Universidade Nova de Lisboa), working on the Portuguese New State corporatism, specifically on the Instituto Nacional do Trabalho e Previdência, and the national trade unions. He holds a research grant from the Instituto de História Contemporânea. He graduated in History at Universidade do Minho(2008), where he also obtained his master’s degree in History (2013). Since 2014, he has been involved in numerous research projects. He is a member of the International Network for Studies on Corporatism and the Organized Interests (NETCOR).