NET Station Conference Proceedings now online
It is now available the NET Station 2015 Conference Proceedings as an output of the this scientific meeting, held in the University of Minho, from 23th to 24th April 2015. Co-edited by Madalena Oliveira, principal investigator of NET Station research project, and Fábio Ribeiro, this book represents part of the discussion that has brought to the University of Minho more than 50 scholars to present studies on “radio, inclusion and communities”, “radio genres”, “radio, youth and media education”, “Internet, social media and technologies” and “radio aesthetics”.
The congress was organized as a conclusion remark of “NET Station: shaping radio for web environment” research project, carried out in the Communication & Research Centre from 2015 to 2015, funded by the Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology, evaluating present configurations of FM radio transition to online and digital domains.
Final programme of “NET Station 2015: Radio, Sound and Internet” International Conference is now online
The detailed programme is online since yesterday. Please follow the link to check the overall schedule.
Guests in NET Station 2015 International Conference
The upcoming congress of NET Station research project, to be held in the University of Minho, from 23-24 april 2015, will have two confirmed guests:
Magz Hall - Opening conference
Magz Hall is a radio artist. Her sound work has been exhibited in many countries. A sound, radio artist and co founder of Radio Arts. Magz Hall sound work has been exhibited in the British Museum, the Sainsbury Centre, MACBA Barcelona, Denmark, Italy, Germany, Norway, Morocco, Canada and the USA. Her ambisonic soundtrack of Hong Kong Airport at the British Museum was described as “extraordinary and rich” (Richard J. Williams).
Lance Dann – Closing conference
Lance Dann is a writer, radio producer, sound designer and professor at the University of Brighton. His research focus are transmedia and participatory storytelling, non-linear narrative and the possibilities offered by digital and web-based radio.
Porto – “From Pirates to the Internet: 25 years of local radio” book presentation
Photos from Luís António Santos
Porto – “From Pirates to the Internet: 25 years of local radio” book presentation
The book will be presented by journalist and former radio amateaur, Luís Miguel Loureiro.
Inside “From Pirates to the Internet: 25 years of local radio” book presentation
Photos from Vítor de Sousa and Luís António Santos
Public presentation of the book “From Pirate to the Internet: 25 years of local radio”
3rd March, 5pm
Social Sciences Institute – University of Minho
This book will be presented by Professor Manuel Pinto and Pedro Costa, a former radio amateur.
A Rádio a 24 fps
The Social Sciences Institute (ICS) will host, next March, several films about radio. With the support of NET Station research project, Communication undergradute students group (GACCUM) and the Communication Sciences Department (DCC).
E-book “From Pirata to the Internet: 25 years of local radio” is now available
NET Station research team is pleased to announce its most recent scientific output. “From Pirate to the Internet: 25 years of local radio” [only in Portuguese] is edited by Ana Isabel Reis, Fábio Ribeiro and Pedro Portela, and presents chapters from Madalena Oliveira and Luís António Santos, also from NET Station project. This book publishes interviews with journalists and radio producers/announcers who have actively participated in the pirate radio context in the 1980′s Portugal. As a contribution to a relatively unknown area in radio studies, this work intends to contribute for the particular discussion of new paths for today’s radio.
To access the full link of the e-book, here.
Picturing World Radio Day 2015
Here is a slide show of some photos taken from the special broadcasting of Portuguese Public Radio Antenta 1 in D. Maria II High School in Braga, on 13th February 2015, in which NET Station research project participated.
To view all the photos, please follow this link. Photos by Luís António Santos.
NET Station in collaboration with Portuguese Public Radio Antena 1 to celebrate World Radio Day 2015
Tommorrow Luís António Santos and Pedro Portela, both from NET Station research project, will participate in Antena 1′s special broadcasting from D.Maria II High School in Braga. The programme will start at 7 am and will be hosted by António Macedo. The researchers will introduce our upcoming e-book ‘From pirate to the Internet: 25 years of local radio’, edited by Communication and Society Research Centre (CSRC).
As the main promoter of this worldwide event, UNESCO will this year draw the attention into ‘Radio and Youth’. In this regard, Macedo will talk with students and teachers to learn about their idea of promoting a radio school.
José Miguel Braga – actor and teacher;
António Durães – one of the founders of the University of Minho Radio;
Miguel Pedro – musician of the Portuguese band ‘Mão Morta’;
Luís Fernandes – musician of the Portuguese band ‘Peixe: Avião’ and cultural manager in GNRation;
João Seabra – comedian who will perform during the programme
5 reasons to start podcasting, for media companies
- You can become more intimate with your audience;
- You have the whole playground for yourself;
- There are many possibilities with podcasting;
- You can distribute podcasts through multiple channels;
- Podcasts connect employees to their organization.
Full link: http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241858
Pedro Portela presents his PhD in the University of Minho
Pedro Portela is a research team member of NET Station and his PhD is intitled “Users’ voice in radio mediamorphosis: interactivity and radio consumption in the early 21st centrury”, in the field of Communication Sciences, specialization of Interactive Media . Manuel Pinto, full professor in the University of Minho (UM) and researcher in the Communication & Society Research Centre, is the supervisor of this thesis.
Pedro will present his contribution to the radio studies to a jury with the following group of researchers: Helena Sousa, president of the Social Sciences Institute, (in representation of the UM’s dean), Sara Pereira, Madalena Oliveira, Luís António Santos (all from the UM), Rogério Santos (Portuguese Catholic University), Ana Isabel Reis (University of Porto), as well as the supervisor.
Business Meeting with Teresa Piñeiro, researcher in the University of Coruña (SPAIN)
Last October 28th, research team ‘NET Station’ has presented the ongoing data of the project to Teresa Piñeiro [pictured in the center of left photo), teacher and researcher in the University of Coruña (Spain). In this meeting, researchers were focused in a complex discussion regarding a possible model to analyse radios in their websites and mobile contexts, one of the key aspects of the project.
Teresa Piñeiro Otero, PhD and Lecturer in Audiovisual Communication in the University of Coruña (Spain) has recently participated in a research mission in the Communication and Society Research Centre, in the University of Minho, following her latest studies on new radio paradigms, especially in web and mobile apps.
[Photos by Luís António Santos, edited by Fábio Ribeiro]
NET Station International Conference
RADIO, SOUND AND INTERNET
University of Minho (PORTUGAL), 23-24 April 2015
(En Español a la continuación)
One of the greatest challenges for radio studies today is to redirect the attention to sound production. Over recent years debates have been focused on technology and new business models. While adapting to internet, radio is however risking its sound nature. Net Station International Conference is meant to be an opportunity to re-centre the discussion on the relevance of sound within contemporary societies, usually reduced to the visual culture perspective.
Following this main concern, the organisation committee of Net Station International Conference welcomes papers on the general scope of radio studies, with a particular focus on sound and internet approaches, such as:
– radio studies epistemology
– radio journalism and narratives
– radio and advertisement
– radio and social media
– radio regulation
– community radio and identity
– radio and young generations
– radio genres and new business models
– migration of traditional/FM Radio to online/web radio
– sound aesthetics
– the creative power of sound
– sounding places, radio as the soundtrack of our public life
Deadline for abstract submissions: November 30, 2014
Each participant may submit a maximum of two proposals (as author or coauthor).
Authors are encouraged to submit their abstracts in English, but Portuguese and Spanish are also accepted languages.
Conferencia Internacional NET Station
Radio, Sonido y Internet
Universidad do Minho (PORTUGAL), 23 y 24 de abril de 2015
Fecha límite para envío de propuestas: 30 de noviembre 2014
Uno de los grandes retos que se presenta actualmente en el ámbito de los estudios radiofónicos se refiere a la necesidad de re direccionar el debate en torno a la producción sonora. Sin embargo, los debates más recientes sobre la radio siguen matizando los efectos de la tecnología y los nuevos modelos de negocio. Mientras observamos sus intentos de adaptación a Internet, la propia naturaleza sonora de la radio parece
verse amenazada. En este sentido, la Conferencia Internacional NET Station se propone recentrar el debate sobre la relevancia del sonido en las sociedades contemporáneas, habitualmente reducidas a una perspectiva centrada en la cultura visual.
A partir de esta preocupación genérica, los organizadores de la Conferencia Internacional NET Station recibirán propuestas de comunicaciones en el marco de los estudios radiofónicos, con un énfasis particular en abordajes sobre el sonido y Internet, además de áreas como:
- el trayecto de los estudios radiofónicos;
- periodismo radiofónico y narrativas;
- radio y publicidad;
- radio y las redes sociales;
- radio en el contexto de la regulación de medios;
- radio comunitaria e identidad;
- radio y jóvenes;
- géneros radiofónicos y nuevos modelos de negocio;
- la migración de la radio tradicional/FM para la radio web/online;
- la estética del sonido;
- el poder creativo del sonido;
- la sonorización de sonidos, la radio como la banda sonora de la vida
Fecha límite de presentación de propuestas: 30 de noviembre del 2014.
Cada participante podrá presentar un máximo de 2 propuestas (como autor o coautor).
Los autores deberán presentar sus propuestas en inglés, aunque también se permite el envío en portugués y español.
Para presentar una propuesta, por favor utilice el formulario en nuestra web.
‘Radio for Deaf People: have you heard about it?’, download available now
Radio’s inaccessibility to deaf people is one of the basic facts of life. Nonetheless, it seems that there has been very little discussion of the potential for greater integration of the deaf and the hard of hearing into media audiences. As we turn our attention to radio as the main focus of this initiative, it is now known that some strategies have been tried to draw these communities into the media environment. As an outcome of a MEDIANE European Exchange, we try to highlight some of those experiments, as well as considering current practice in Public Service Radio towards the deaf, especially in Portugal and in the UK, by interviewing some of the journalists of the BBC and RDP about future strategies, if any, that could be adopted. To this end, we questioned how radio could improve the access of deaf people, as well as demonstrating the potential of social media to promote their participation.
As an output of the project, this flier summarizes good practice and underlines recommendations to media broadcasters of appropriate software to reach deaf people more effectively. Based on an exploratory study with public radio in Portugal and in the UK, this handout should also be available for Journalism and Communication students, thus raising their awareness and providing them with information about this subject.
This document was produced in the scope of MEDIANE (Media in Europe for Diversity Inclusiveness), financed by the Council of Europe, by Fábio Ribeiro, Research Associate in CSRC (University of Minho) and Luís Pereira, Educational Technology Consultant; Visiting Scholar Ravensbourne/Greenwich Digital Skills; University of Reading, in the UK.
Fábio Ribeiro – firstname.lastname@example.org
Luís Pereira – email@example.com
Polish Radio involved in ‘NET Station’ survey
Three stations from Polish public radio – Trójka, Jedynka e Dwójka - and TOK FM have recently published in their websites a survey from ‘NET Station’ research project, which aims to study different types of listeners/users in Poland. Stanislaw Jedrzejewski, researcher of this project currently working in Poland, has conducted the survey, which is expected to be available to collect all the pertinent data from two months on.
NET Station research team has conducted a similar study in Portugal, in radio websites such as Antena 1, Rádio Renascença, TSF, RFM, RUM, among others.
Some insight from yesterday’s research seminar
«The economic crisis was harder in other media than in radio»
Manuel Fernández Sande, lecturer in the Complutense University of Madrid, considered that a positive evolution of radio, especially in the Internet, has proven to be decisive to weaken the severe effects of the economic crisis in the media industry, in Spain. Participating in Research Seminar ‘Studying radio in an economic crisis context: new challenges to come», Manuel Sande also pointed out that new strategies with podcasting have been important to enhance radio productions to reach specific audiences and thus collecting the interest of many advertisers. According to official data, only 9 radio stations have disappeared in Spain, since the begging of the economic crisis, Sande explained. Most of them have chosen to associate with others.
«What kind of radio is this crisis creating?», questions Manuel Sande.
From the research point of view, Sande underlined few studies in this scope. From the Spanish Government there are also little effort to found research projects in this area, as the scientific policy is to enhance wider thematic projects rather than specific ones, suggested Manuel. Nonetheless, the researcher thinks that little research in radio has demonstrated to be very important for the industry. This seminar was also an opportunity for NET Station researchers to discuss with Manuel Sande the ongoing tasks of our project. Manuel Sande was on an Erasmus Research project in the Communication Sciences Department for a week.
‘NET Station’ Research Team participates in the foundation of Portuguese Radio and Sound Media Network Group
A new research group was founded in the scope of the Portuguese Communication Sciences Association (SOPCOM). It is called ‘Radio and Sound Media Working Group’ and is coordinated by Madalena Oliveira (leading researcher in NET Station project) and Luís Bonixe (CIMJ – New University of Lisbon). This is an outcome from previous informal meetings held in September and October 2013 where Portuguese researchers in this field have met to draw several plans in this regard. Thus, by fostering new research in radio studies, promoting a wider engagement among academics, national and international wide, this network aims to publish its own series of books, articles and other materials related to this research activity. Luís António Santos, Ana Isabel Reis and Fábio Ribeiro, from NET Station, are involved in this group as well.
Last meeting was held in the Lisbon, in October 2013, during the VIII SOPCOM Congress.
«Studying radio in an economic crisis context: new challenges to come», with Dr. Manuel Fernández Sande
Questioning what kind of subjects can be fostered by researchers in radio studies, as well as new challenges posed by new devices to listen to the radio, are key aspects to be discuss in tomorrow’s [24/05/2014] Research Seminar, facilitated by Dr. Manuel Fernández Sande, from the Complutense University of Madrid. Professor Manuel is currently on an Erasmus Research Programme in the Communication Sciences Department and will also meet NET Station researchers to discuss several aspects related to our work.
The Seminar will be held in Room 008, in the Social Sciences Institutes of the University of Minho. Entrance is free.
‘Radio in the Internet’ survey is now available
Completing one of the key tasks of this research project, it is now available the survey ‘Radio in the Internet’, which seeks to understand what kind of users and listerners are there in the Portuguese radio, both traditional/FM and online. So far, a link to this survey has been displayed in the online radios Antena 1, Rádio Renascença, RFM, TSF, Rádio Universitária do Minho. More radios are expected to be integrated in the survey shortly.
To answer this survey, here.
World Radio Day 2014 | ‘NET Station’: evening talk and radio in school
Celebrating World Radio Day, on February 13th, ‘NET Station’ research team organized two activities:
‘Radio in School’
On 13th February, 10 am, this research visited E.B. 1 S. Pedro d’Este’s School, located in Braga, to gather students around radio in the classroom. Hence, they had the opportunity to experience how radio works, as well as recreating a similar studio environment.
Find here more photos from this activity. Credits to Luis António Santos.
Evening talk ‘From Pirate Radios to Local Radios: 25 years after of new legal framework’
António Durães (actor and co-founder of Rádio Universitária do Minho); Luís Miguel Loureiro (TV journalist in RTP) and Francisco Amaral (radio producer). Guests talked about how pirate radio became local radio, in Portugal, especially after 1988′s Resolution to liberalize radio broadcastings all over the country. Ana Isabel Reis, researcher in ‘NET Station’ project, has moderated this talk, where new challenges of radio in Internet will be questioned. In this event, researchers will also awarded the Best Radio Production, in the latest contest promoted by this project.
Find here more photos from this talk. Credits to Luis António Santos.
World Radio Day 2014 | ‘NET Station’ goes to school and promotes an evening talk
On 13th February, 10 am, this research team will be visiting E.B. 1 S. Pedro d’Este’s School, located in Braga, to gather students around radio in the classroom. Hence, they will be able to experience how radio works, as well as recreating a similar studio environment.
In the same day, 9:30 pm, a panel of former radio journalists will be in Livraria Centésima Página, in Braga, to participate in the evening talk ‘From Pirate Radio to Local Radio: 25 years of new legal framework’: António Durães (actor and co-founder of Rádio Universitária do Minho), Luís Miguel Loureiro (TV journalist in RTP) and Francisco Amaral (radio producer). Guests will remember how pirate radio became local radio, in Portugal, especially after 1988′s Resolution to liberalize radio broadcastings all over the country. Ana Isabel Reis, researcher in ‘NET Station’ project will be moderating this talk, where new challenges of radio in Internet will be questioned. In this event, researchers will also give the award to the best Radio Production, in the latest contest promoted by this project. University Radio of Minho will also broadcast this talk in the following day.
Both initiatives intend to celebrate World Radio Day, an international date acknowledged by UNESCO since 2011. These two activities are different, the first one with children and the other to the general audiences. Researchers of ‘NET Station: shaping radio for web environment’ project aim to bring children to the radio, in such a particular times where TV and Internet are gathering too many attention from mainstream media.
Madalena Oliveira (Leading Researcher of NET Station)
Luís António Santos
From today to 15th January 2014, it is opened the contest ‘Radio Productions – NET Station’, which intends to award original and creative autonomous productions in radio, especially within colleague students or still in high school. All the productions can be included in several genres, from informative/journalism, musical, humor, drama, etc., should not exceed 4 minutes lenght and should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org. Three best productions will be invited to participate in Communication and Society Research Centre (CSRC) event to celebrate World Day of Radio, on 13th February 2014. The best one will be awarded with a digital recorder. This contest seeks to promote a wider engagement of young people in radio, by enhacing their own productions.
Exhibition ‘Aliens in Braga in 1988′s Press’ – first pictures
Exhibition ‘Aliens in Braga in 1988′s Press’ to be held on 30th-31th October 2013 in University of Minho
On October 30th 1988, Braga has experienced an unusual day. Radio Braga, a well-established pirate radio in town, decided to celebrate the 50th anniversary of worldwide broadcasting ‘War of Worlds’, by Orson Welles. During regular news update ‘Encontro às Dez’, Costa Guimarães, a well-known and reputed journalist, suddenly interrupted to inform about an unexpected invasion from aliens, in Cabanelas, a small village in the surroundings of Braga. Although Radio Braga has previously informed about this fake event, listeners have interpreted differently.
It is somehow curious that Braga dealt with several strange circumstances that day. Apart from a very rain and foggy day, Red Cross was simulated a huge disaster in city centre, involving dozens of people in a fictional accident. According to several witnesses, these situations, plus the radio incident, have lead several hundreds of people to escape from town, as well as others which protested in Radio Braga’s building.
25 years after this supposedly alien’s invasion and as part of the 75th anniversary of the original ‘War of Worlds’, Communication and Society Research Centre and ‘Net Station’ research project recall this event, which may lead us to discuss the imaginative and powerful role of radio and sound. In the Social Sciences Institute main hall, in the University of Minho, we will show how national and international media have looked into this event, from Japan to Brazil and listen to the original ‘War of Worlds’ and its tribute by Radio Braga.
This event is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology (FCT).
New issue on ‘Journal of Radio & Audio Media’ now available
Volume 20, issue 2 of ‘Journal of Radio & Audio Media’ has now been published. As part of its 20th anniversary, the editorial committee published some insight of their work in this scientific field throughout these years as well as some of the latest research in this area. In this issue, there is also a particular section dedicated to the main conclusions of the recent Symposium ‘Radio & Audio Media Research’, held in Canada. The last part of this volume is about several book reviews. This journal is part of Journal of the Broadcast Education Association (BEA).
All contents here.
A general insight from the Portuguese Radio Research Meeting, held yesterday in Coimbra
During yesterday’s morning pannel, researchers have discussed the role of the incomming radio studies in the Communication Sciences field. Paula Cordeiro, from Techinal University of Lisbon, has suggested that has suggested that, despite several public claims, recent data show that radio audiences are getting larger. Cordeiro has also said that it is crucial to recognize listener’s participation as key part in radio programmes. Thus, Juan José Perona has presented the general guidelines of the research group Publiradio, in the Autonomous University of Barcelona, especially focused in studying institutional advertisement. Madalena Oliveira, from University of Minho, has appointed the lack of studies published in Portuguese scientific community under the subjects of radio and sound as a strong motivation to start a new path. Sílvio Santos, teacher in the University of Coimbra, has presented British project ‘Radio Active 101′, as a radio role model to enhance a more dynamic citizenship, by letting teenagers participate in radio productions.
In the afternoons, the discussion has focused in new paths of radio in Internet. Hence, Maria Luz Barbeito, from the Autonomous University of Barcelona, has highlighted the main results of a research project which has been involved in, particularly what she called the ‘digital soundsphere’ of university students in Spain. According to Barbeito, mobile phones and laptops remain as key devices to listen to the radio, particularly music shows, rather than information or entertainment. Luís António Santos, from University of Minho, has presented the main tasks of the research project ‘Net Station: shapping radio for web environment’, which intends to promote the discussion about the new challenges to radio in Internet, as well as learning how Portuguese radios have been working online. Luis Bonixe, from Polytechnics Institute of Portalegre, showed some important results of his PhD research in which has analysed how local radios are working in the web, coming up into the general conclusion that radio productions are still putting few efforts to explore and enhance their programmes online. In the last intervention, Ana Isabel Reis, from the University of Porto, studied in her PhD how audio is connected to online news of radio websites, criticising the lack of imagination of radio journalists to promote their work online.
In the last part of the event, researchers have discussed common strategies to prepare the official creation of a radio research section within the Portuguese Association for the Communication Sciences (SOPCOM), in the upcoming congress in the October, in Lisbon.
Challenges of Radio Research – national business meeting (confirmed and updated)
A national meeting is being prepared on 30th September, in the University of Coimbra (Portugal), in order to discuss “The challenges in radio research“. Organized both by CEIS20, CECS and CIMJ, this event will gather members of the Radio and Sound Studies Network, by SOPCOM, the Portuguesese Association of the Communication Sciences, as well as two Spanish academics who have been working in this field: Juan José Perona and María Luz Barbeito, from research group Publiradio, held in Autonomous University of Barcelona. The venue will be in Casa das Caldeiras and no registration proccedures are requested.
Members of ‘Net Station’ project in Radio Research 2013 conference, starting today in London
Madalena Oliveira will chair ‘Guest Playback: The Radio Feature’ panel, today in the afternoon. In this session, Triple Prix Italia award-winning and former BBC Radio producer Piers Plowright will be with highly reputed radio researcher Peter Lewis, Senior Lecturer, from London Metropolitan University. Ana Isabel Reis, also a reseacher in ‘Net Station’, will present a paper in the second day of the congress, ‘Radio news on Internet: is sound still dominant?’, in ‘Sound, visibility and invisibility’ room. On 13th, the last day of radio conference, Madalena also presents ‘Comedy shows: humour, crisis and the resilience of radio’, in ‘Drama and humour on the air’ panel. In the following three days, Radio Research 2013 is about to host almost 80 papers from four continents, in London campus of the University of Sunderland.
Only two days left for Radio Research Conference 2013
The biannual meeting of the Radio Research Section of ECREA (European Communication Research and Education Association) is about to start. In the Londus campus of the University of Sunderland, there days (11th to 13th September) of intense discussion about radio is expected. Researchers, former and present radio producers will have the opportunity to question the actual state of radio in the context of technological developments, new formats and contents, the relationship with audiences, etc.
In the first day, highley reputed radio researcher Peter Lewis will present some of his latest work as he currently lectures in community media at London Metropolitan University. Lewis founded Radio Studies Network, originally an independent organisation but now located within MeCCSA. He is also a former television producer and a continuing advocate of community radio. In this plenary session, three time Prix Italias winner Piers Plowright will talk about his carreer, especially as radio producer in BBC from 1968 and 1997. Since his retirement he’s been a visiting lecturer at the UK Universities of Aberystwyth, Bournemouth, Christ Church Canterbury, and Westminster. In this congress, MeCCSA is set to prepare a live presentation of a radio programme, so that students take a real and close look of what means to work with audio in this context. Book prizes worth up to £100 will be awarded at Radio Research 2013, thanks to a number of leading academic publishers who are actively supporting the conference.
RADIO GRAPHY, New blog of the GRER
The research blog Radio Graphy is a new publication of the Group of researches and studies on the radio (GRER), a scientific association for the promotion of the study on mass media-Radio. It will be intended to reflect and dessiminate, in a flexible way, radio research, both in France, in the francophone world and in the rest of the world.
It is also possible to find the call for papers of the forthcomming GRER International Colloquim, which will be held in Strasbourg (France), on March 20th and 21st, 2014.
Conference Call for Papers: RADIO RESEARCH 2013: Radio, the resilient medium. 11-13 September 2013 London, UK
‘Radio Research 2013′ aims to explore the many ways in which the medium of radio is proving once again to be resilient in ways which could not have been predicted even a short time ago. In some markets, radio listening is being recorded at record levels, partly due to its relatively recent emergence on a wide variety of new and established platforms, such as social networking sites, mobile phones, tablets, the internet and television EPGs. Production practices are now firmly situated in the digital domain, and producers benefit from greater studio-quality access to a wider variety of contributors and locations. Economic and corporate pressures are disrupting old certainties about the provenance of programming, as local stations become quasi-national ones. New forms of user-generated content appear in traditional radio genres, while à la carte and diasporic listening brings remote and specialised radio stations to international audiences where once only medium and short wave transmissions significantly disrupted geographical, political and socio-economic boundaries to the dissemination of news and information and to human cultural interaction.